Glossary of Water & Wastewater Terms

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DAF Unit - A DAF Unit or Dissolved Air Flotation Unit is a device that removes suspended matter such as oil or solids, from water, by dissolving air in the water under pressure and then releasing the air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank or basin.

Dam Safety - In Queensland if a dam is classified as "referrable", then it is the dam owners responsibility to ensure the dam's safety. A referrable dam is defined as one that would, in the event of failure, put two or more persons at risk.

Desalination Plant - A Desalination Plant is a facility for removing salt and other minerals from sea water to produce fresh water for human consumption or irrigation.

Digester - A Digester is a vessel that provides for the process of anerobic digestion. It is commonly made of concrete and houses anerobic bacteria. Sewerage sludge is normally pumped in at regular intervals to maintain a food supply for the population of anerobic bacteria. Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is widely used to treat wastewater sludges and organic wastes because it provides volume and mass reduction of the input material. A conical floor can be included in the digester design to facilitate product removal and cleaning. Some form of mixing equipment is also normally used to promote the digestion process.
Digesters are typically found at Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Drinking Water - Drinking Water (also Potable Water) is water that is suitable for human consumption.

Drinking Water Scheme - A Drinking Water Scheme is the infrastructure owned by a drinking water service provider for single or multiple combinations of the individual components of treatment, transmission, reticulation, or the storage of recycled water to augment a drinking water supply.

Effluent - Effluent is residual or waste water, including sewage, which is flushed through sewerage pipes and treated before re-use or discharge to the environment.

Emergency Relief Structure - An Emergency Relief Structure (ERS) is used to prevent sewer overflows through maintenance holes or customer connections, for example through an ORG, and to protect the sewer system from damage particularly during extreme rain events.

Feed Hydrant - A feed hydrant is a term used to describe a fire hydrant suitable for supplying water to the suction of a fire fighting appliance.

Fire Fighting Appliance - Fire Fighting Appliance is a term used to describe a fire truck with a booster pump used to boost water pressure for fire fighting.

Fire Fighting Flow - The fire fighting flow is the flow rate required for fire fighting purposes established by assessing the building material type, building design and size and referring to the Fire Fighting Regulations.

Fire Hydrant - A fire hydrant is a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in extinguishing a fire.

Grey Water - Grey water (greywater) is household wastewater which has not been contaminated by toilet discharge. Grey water includes wastewater from baths, showers, bathroom wash basins, clothes washing machines, sinks and laundry tubs.

Grit Chamber - A Grit Chamber is typically a long narrow tank designed to settle out solids such as sand, coffee grounds, and eggshells from wastewater passing through it.

Highlift Pump Station - A Highlift Pump Station is a pump station designed to pump treated water into the water reticulation system at pressure either directly or via a Water Tower.

Hydrogen Sulfide - Hydrogen sulfide gas, (H2S), is a major source of odour in wastewater systems. H2S gas has a characteristic 'rotten egg' smell. This gas results from the reduction of sulfate (SO4-2) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S), by anaerobic bacteria:
SO4-2 + 2C + 2H2O → 2HCO3- H2S

Hydrograph - A hydrograph is a graph that shows the flow of a stream over time. The stream can be creek or river flows, as well as sewage flow.

Inflow and Infiltration - Inflow and Infiltration is water entering the sewer system through cracked pipes or leaky manholes.

Inlet Chamber - An Inlet Chamber is a chamber designed to receive a water from a reservoir.

Irrigation Channel - An irrigation channel is an open channel that transports water in order to irrigate agricultural land.

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