Glossary of Water & Wastewater Terms

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Jump Up - The term jump up, which is also known as vertical riser, is often used to describe a sewerage house connection branch.

Longitudinal Cracking - Longitudinal cracking can occur in both pipes and roads.

Operating Pressure - Operating Pressure is the internal mains pressure that occurs at a particular time and at a particular point in a water supply system.

Oxygen Dosing Station - An Oxygen Dosing Station is a device designed to dose sewage with oxygen.

Package Sewage Treatment Plant - A package sewage treatment plant is a compact sewage treatment system suitable for treating the waste generated by populations of up to 5000 people.

Penstock Valve - A penstock valve, is a large square slide style valve used as a flow stop, as in a well inlet, mounted flush to a wall.

Pipe Fitting - A pipe fitting is a component of a pipeline, other than a pipe, which allows pipeline deviation, change of direction or bore.
Pipe fitting or pipefitting is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas, and occasionally solid materials. This work involves selecting and preparing pipe or tubing, joining it together by various means, and the location and repair of leaks.

Potable Water - Potable water is water of sufficiently high quality that it can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm.

Pressure Main - A pressure main is a pipeline that carries a fluid (typically water or sewage) at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure.

Pressure Reducing Valve - A pressure reducing valve (PRV) is a valve used to reduce the pressure to a pre-set downstream pressure.

Pressure Relief Valve - A pressure relief valve (PRelV) is a type of valve used to limit pressure surges within the water main system. A pressure relief valve is designed to open when a preset maximum pressure is reached. These valves are also known as Safety Relief Valves.

For information on choosing type and size of a PRelV, refer to WSA03 2002 Water Supply Code of Australia.

Pressure Sustaining Valve - A pressure sustaining valve (PSV) is a type of valve that maintains pre-set minimum downstream pressure. This valve type is very similar to a safety relief valve.

Probable Maximum Flood - Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), is the flood resulting from Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP), including catchment conditions that are conducive to generating floods.

Property Connection Sewer - A Property Connection Sewer is a short sewer, owned and operated by a Water Agency, which connects the main sewer or Sewer Access Point to the Customer Sanitary Drain; it includes a junction on the main sewer, a property connection fitting, in some cases a vertical riser, and sufficient straight pipes to ensure the property connection fitting is within the lot to be serviced.

Property Service - The WSAA defines a Property Service as a portion of a property water service from the reticulation main to meter location.

Reflux Valve - A reflux valve is a type of valve that permits flow in only one direction. Reflux valves are also known as check valves.

Residual Pressure - Residual Pressure is a term used in AS 2419.1 and refers to the pressure remaining in a pipe during flow conditions. It is often referred to during water supply adequacy testing for fire fighting flow.

Reverse Osmosis - Reverse osmosis is a filtration method applied to the desalination of water. Osmosis is the passage of solutes through a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration, until both regions have reached equal solute concentration. The energy that drives this process is called osmotic pressure. In reverse osmosis, this osmotic pressure has to be overcome to drive the solutes from a region of low to high concentration.

Rising Main - Rising Main is a synonym for Pressure Main. Although water pressure mains are sometimes referred to as rising mains, the term is most commonly used when referring to a sewer pressure main.

Sand Filter - A sand filter is a device designed to purify water by making it to pass through a layer of sand.

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