LGAM Glossary

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Acronyms . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H . I . J . K . L . M . N . O . P . Q . R . S . T . U . V . W . X . Y . Z . All

Child Care Centre - A child care centre is a facility at which young children are cared for whislt their parents are working or are otherwise unavailable to care for them.

Chip Seal - Chip Seal -> Sprayed Seal

Chlorine Detention Chamber - A Chlorine Detention Chamber' is a large concrete chamber designed to provide contact time for dissolved chlorine gas to kill bacteria in sewage. Chlorine Detention Chambers are typically found at Wastewater Treatment Plants, for final effluent treatment prior to discharge to environment.

Circumferential Cracking - Circumferential Cracking is the most common type of cracking found in water and sewer pipes. Circumferential cracks run around a pipe rather than along its length.

Civic Centre - A Civic Centre is a building or buildings containing Council Offices and/or Council Chambers and/or facilities for Civic Receptions.

Civic Park - A civic park is a park used for civic purposes. Civic parks are typically located close to the centre of a municipality or population centre, and are well serviced by roads & pathways.

Civic Precinct - A Civic Precinct is an area containing a number of civic buildings. It may incorporate a Civic Park or other open space.

Cladding - Cladding is a layer of material applied to the outside of a building or structure to control the infiltration of weather elements, or for aesthetic purposes. Cladding does not necessarily have to provide a water-proof condition but is instead a control element. This control element may only serve to safely direct water or wind in order to control run-off and prevent infiltration into the building structure.

Clearway - A clearway is a section of road where parking and stopping is prohibited either totally, or more usually between certain hours.

Cloud Computing - Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet.

Clubhouse - A clubhouse is a building used by a sporting or community club as a base of operations. A Sporting Clubhouse (also Sports Pavilion) is typcially located adjacent to sports courts, a sports field, or an oval, etc.

Code of Practice - A Code of Practice is a document that sets out specific standards of conduct for an industry in relation to its customers.

Collaboration - Collaboration is the act of working with others to achieve a common goal or overcome a shared challenge.

Collective Intelligence - Collective intelligence is a shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals.

Collector Road - A collector road is a non-arterial road that collects and distributes traffic in an area as well as serving abutting property.

Collector Street - A collector street is a street providing for local residential access and collection of traffic from access places and/or access streets.

Collector-Distributor Road - A Collector-Distributor Road is an auxiliary road, separated laterally from, but generally parallel to, a through road and joining it at a limited number of points. The road serves to collect traffic from and distribute traffic to several local roads.

Common Effluent Disposal - Common Effluent Disposal (CED) is a sewage collection system that consists of septic tanks on each property. Each tank may be connected to the reticulation sewerage system, which conveys the sewage to either a centralised wastewater treatment plant or to a lagoon sewage treatment facility. It also allows the option of on-site treatment.

Communal Street - A communal street is a carriageway providing access to a housing development and which is under the control of a body corporate or equivalent.

Community Building - A Community Building is both:

  • a building used for cultural or community purposes;
  • a field of practice directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area (such as a neighborhood) or with a common interest.

Community Centre - A Community Centre is a public building where members of a community may gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. Many Councils operate community centres.

Community Consultation - Community Consultation is the process of ensuring that communities are effectively consulted, prior to decisions that effect them are made.

Community Emergency Risk Management - Community Emergency Risk Management (CERM) is the process of:

  • protecting the community by identifying key natural and other hazards with a focus on preventing and reducing the effects of these hazards; and
  • providing a risk management framework, leading to further consultation with the community to enhance community safety.

Community Emergency Risk Management Plan - A Community Emergency Risk Management Plan is a plan that:

  • facilitates the protection of the community by identifying key natural and other hazards with a focus on preventing and reducing the effects of these hazards; and
  • provides a risk management framework, leading to further consultation with the community to enhance community safety.

Community Engagement - Community Engagement is a generic, inclusive term to describe the broad range of interactions between an organisation its community. It can include a variety of approaches, such as one-way communication or information delivery, consultation, involvement and collaboration in decision-making, and empowered action in informal groups or formal partnerships.

Community Engagement Plan - A Community Engagement Plan is a plan that specifies how the community should be involved in the decision making process for a given project and how to use community input to make better decisions.

Community Engagement Policy - A Community Engagement Policy is a policy that describes how a local government engages with the community about;
(a) preparing, reviewing and changing its long-term community plan; and
(b) any other matters mentioned in the policy relevant to establishing or reviewing the performance of its system of financial management.

Community Facility - A community facility is a facility that is designed to provide a service to a community.

Community Grant - A community grant is a sum of money provided to an organisation by a government to fund or help fund a community project.

Community Hall - A Community Hall is a Hall that is available for use by the general community.

Community of Practice - A community of practice is a group of people who share an interest, a craft, and/or a profession.

Community Plan - A Community Plan is a plan developed through community consultation to achieve a community endorsed vision for the future.

Community Planning - Community Planning is planning carried out with the active participation of the end users.

Community Satisfaction Survey - A Community Satisfaction Survey is a survey undertaken to discover how the residents of a municipality perceive that their Council is performing.

Community Service Level - A community service level / community level of service is a service level that specifies the level of service that is to be provided to the community.

Community Title Scheme - A community title scheme is a legally registered property that is shared between one or more separately owned lots of land. This shared property is managed by the registered lot owners through a body corporate.

Component - A component is a part of an asset that for any reason needs to be identified separately from its parent asset. Reasons may include a different useful life or maintenance regime.

Component Checklist - A Component Checklist is a list of component types that could be part of a typical asset of a particular asset type.

Composite Asset - A composite asset is an asset necessarily assembled from or compromised of assemblages and/or components.

Compressor - A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

Computerised Maintenance Management System - A Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is a computer system that schedules, tracks and monitors maintenance activities and provides cost, component item, tooling, personnel and other reporting data and history.

Concrete - Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, aggregate, sand, water, and chemical admixtures.

Concrete Canvas - Concrete Canvas is a flexible concrete impregnated fabric that turns to concrete within 24 hours of being hydrated (sprayed with water).

Condition Assessment Manual - A Condition Assessment Manual (also Condition Rating Assessment Manual) is a document that specifies how asset condition inspections on a particular class of asset should be carried out, and how to determine the appropriate condition score for a given asset.

Condition Based Maintenance - Condition Based Maintenance is a maintenance technique that involves monitoring the condition of an asset and using that information to predict its failure.

Condition Monitoring - Condition Monitoring is the continuous or periodic inspection, assessment, measurement and interpretation of the resultant data, to indicate the condition of a specific component so as to determine the need for some preventive or remedial action.

Condition Report - A condition report is a report into the condition of an asset.

Condition-Based Depreciation - Condition-Based Depreciation is the determination of accumulated depreciation as the cost in any reporting period of restoring an asset's gross service potential, based on the condition of the asset within the period. Changes from year to year in cumulative depreciation so determined represent the annual depreciation.

Confined Space - A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that -:

  • (a) is at atmospheric pressure when anyone is in the space and
  • (b) is not intended or designed primarily as a workplace and
  • (c) could have restricted entry to, or exit from the place and
  • (d) is, or is likely to be, entered by a person to work and
  • (e) at any time, contains, or is likely to contain, any of the following-
    • (i) an atmosphere that has potentially harmful levels of contaminant
    • (ii) an atmosphere that does not have a safe oxygen level
    • (iii)anything that could cause engulfment.

Congestion Travel Index - The Congestion Travel Index (CGI) is a measure of traffic congestion. CGI is measured in "minutes of delay per km of travel". A CGI of zero represents uncongested free-flowing conditions. The higher the indicator, the greater the degree of congestion.

Constructed Wetlands - A constructed wetlands is a shallow pool of water, characterised by extensive areas of emergent aquatic plants/macrophytes, designed to support a wide range of micro-organisms and plants associated with the breakdown and trapping of nutrients. Wetlands may be designed as permanent wet basins (perennial) or ephemeral systems.

Construction Safety Plan - A Construction Safety Plan is a plan prepared by a principal contractor under Section 263 of the Queensland WH&S Regulation 2008.

Contaminated Land - Contaminated Land is land contaminated by hazardous substances (such arsenic, DDT or oil) which may pose a risk to human health and/or the environment. Common land uses which are known to cause contamination include service stations, cattle dips, tanneries, wood treatment sites and landfills.

Continuous Improvement - Continuous Improvement is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. Processes are constantly evaluated and improved on the basis of factors such as their efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility.

Contract Management - Contract Management relates to the legal framework in which procurement contracts operate. It requires an understanding what constitutes a valid contract, and the rights and obligations of all parties to the contract.

Contributed Asset - Contributed Asset -> Donated Asset

Convention Centre - A Convention Centre is a large building designed to hold a convention.

Coordinating Road Authority - A Coordinating Road Authority is the road authority with the responsibility for coordinating works within a particular road reserve.

Core Asset Management - Core Asset Management is Asset Management which relies primarily on the use of an asset register, maintenance management systems, job/resource management, inventory control, condition assessment, simple risk assessment and defined levels of service in order to establish alternative treatment options and long-term cashflow predictions. Priorities are usually established on the basis of financial return gained by carrying out the work (rather than detailed risk analysis and optimised decision making).

Core Asset Management Plan - A Core Asset Management Plan is an asset management plan that complies with the minimum legislative requirements for an asset management plan, and contains core asset management information.

Corporate Management Team - A Corporate Management Team (CMT) is a team of senior managers - typically the CEO and Directors of an organisation.

Corporate Plan - A Corporate Plan is a business plan that identifies a Council's strategic direction and outcomes for the future.

Corporate Planning - Corporate Planning is an operational & strategic planning process used by Councils and other organisations to develop a Corporate Plan.

Correction Chamber - A Correction Chamber is a large concrete chamber designed to provide a dosing point for pH correction of treated water at a Water Treatment Plant.

Corrective Maintenance - Corrective maintenance is maintenance carried out after a failure has occurred, and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its required function. (This may include breakdown or reactive maintenance)

Corrosion Pitting - Corrosion Pitting is localised corrosion which, if it remains unchecked, will lead to small holes in the pipe wall. These small holes can lead to pipe blow out.

Corrugations - Corrugations are closely & regularly spaced transverse undulations in the surface of a road. Corrugations are known as Washboarding in some countries.

Cost - Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of the other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction or, where applicable, the amount attributed to that asset when initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements of other Australian Accounting Standards.

Cost Estimate - A cost estimate is an estimate of the cost of future works.

Cost of Failure - The cost of failure of an asset may be:

  • environmental
  • social
  • operational
  • economic

Cost-Benefit Analysis - A Cost-Benefit Analysis is an economic decision-making approach. It is used in the assessment of whether a proposed project, program or policy is worth doing, or to choose between several alternative ones. It involves comparing the total expected costs of each option against the total expected benefits, to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs, and by how much.

Council Plan - A Council Plan is a plan that documents the strategic objectives of a Council.

Councillor - A councillor is an elected representative on a local government council.

Coupon Removal - Coupon Removal is the process of cutting out a circular section of a pipe wall.

Court - The term court has a few different meanings, but the most common local government usage is probably as a synonym for cul-de-sac, i.e. a dead-end street with only one inlet/outlet.

Crack Sealing - Crack Sealing is the process of sealing cracks in sealed roads with a hot polymer/rubberised bitumen sealant.

Cracking - Cracking is the presence of cracks in a road surface or a range of other civil structures and infrastructure assets.

Creation/Acquisition Plan - A Creation/Acquisition Plan is a document that defines how an organisation decides when new assets need to be created and existing assets need to be upgraded, the projected cost of these works and the standards applicable to them. Construction/Acquisition Plans are often a section within an Asset Management Plan.

Creative Commons Licencing - Creative commons licencing is a type of copyright protection. The original author of the material retains copyright to the his or her work, while enabling the copying, distributing and re-use of their work for non-commercial purposes by third parties, provided the original author or creator of the work is credited.

Creative Commons ShareAlike License - "ShareAlike" is one of four standard license conditions used by Creative Commons in its six main licence models. It allows others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work.

Critical Asset - A critical asset is an asset for which the financial, business or service level consequences of failure are sufficiently severe to justify proactive inspection and rehabilitation. Critical assets have a lower threshold for action than non-critical assets.

Criticality - Criticality is the quality, state, or degree of being of the highest importance.

Crocodile Cracking - Crocodile Cracking is interconnecting or interlaced cracking in a road seal resembling the hide of a crocodile. Cell sizes can vary in size up to 300mm across, but are typically less than 150mm across. Crocodile Cracking is often a sign of pavement failure.

Cross-Disciplinary Team - A Cross-Disciplinary Team is a team of people with a wide range of different skills & expertise.

Crumb Rubber - Crumb Rubber is rubber granules obtained from recycling rubber tyres. Discarded rubber tyres are ground into crumbs. The size of these crumbs are graded by passing them though a series of meshes. Each mesh has holes of size smaller than the one above it, thereby sorting the crumbs by size. The crumb size can be as small as 0.25 mm.

Cul-de-sac - A cul-de-sac (also court & close) is a dead-end street with only one inlet/outlet.

Cultural Asset - A cultural asset is an asset of cultural significance, that won't depreciate in value over time. Examples of cultural assets include artworks & antique furniture.

Culvert - A culvert is a conduit used to enclose a flowing body of water. It may be used to allow water to pass underneath a road, railway, or embankment for example. Culverts can be made of many different materials; steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and concrete are the most common. Formerly, construction of stone culverts was common.

Current Asset - A "current asset" is an asset which is expected to be sold or consumed within one financial year.

Customer Request Management - Customer Request Management or Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is the processes a company uses to track and organize its contacts with its current and prospective customers. CRM software is used to support these processes.

Customer Satisfaction Survey - A customer satisfaction survey is a survey that is designed to ascertain the level of satisfaction customers have with a range of products or services.

Cycleway - A cycleway is a special road, route, or path intended for use by cyclists. (Bicycle lanes along the side of a road are not cycleways)

Cyclical Maintenance - Cyclical Maintenance or cyclic maintenance is maintenance which is repeated on a periodic basis.

DAF Unit - A DAF Unit or Dissolved Air Flotation Unit is a device that removes suspended matter such as oil or solids, from water, by dissolving air in the water under pressure and then releasing the air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank or basin.

Dam - A Dam is a structure designed to impound the water of a river or other watercourse.

Dam Safety - In Queensland if a dam is classified as "referrable", then it is the dam owners responsibility to ensure the dam's safety. A referrable dam is defined as one that would, in the event of failure, put two or more persons at risk.

Dam Safety Monitoring and Instrumentation - Dam Safety Monitoring and Instrumentation is a process of monitoring the condition of a dam to ensure public safety and the ongoing viable service of the dam to the community and industry.

Data Dictionary - A data dictionary, is a centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format. A data dictionary is used in the development of a relational database system.

Database - A database is an organized collection of data for one or more purposes, usually in digital form.

Date of Practical Completion - The Date of Practical Completion is the date at which a project employing the "Australian Standard - General Conditions of Contract" is considered to be complete.

Declared Road - A Declared Road is a road declared to be a highway, main road or secondary road, etc, under an act of parliament.

Defect - A defect is an imperfection within an asset that could potentially lead to the premature failure of the asset.

Defined Flood Event - Defined Flood Event (DFE) is a hypothetical flood event used by local government to establish the Defined Flood Level for building and development planning.

Defined Flood Level - Defined Flood Level (DFL) is the estimated height of the flood waters produced when the Defined Flood Event occurs, and is measured in AHD.

Degradation Curve - A degradation curve is a graph of an asset's condition or remaining service potential plotted over time.

Demarcation Agreement - A demarcation agreement is a document that specifies the boundaries of responsibilities between two organisations. Councils often have demarcation agreements with adjacent municipalities and other road authorities to clearly define which authority is responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of boundary roads and non-council roads within the boundaries of the municipality.

Depot - A depot is a facility used as an operating base for construction crews and other outdoor staff, and for the storage of goods, materials, plant & equipment.

Depreciated Replacement Cost - The Depreciated Replacement Cost (DRC) of an asset is the current replacement cost of the asset, less accumulated depreciation calculated on the basis of such a cost to reflect the already consumed or expired future economic benefits of the asset.

Depreciation - Depreciation is the reduction in the value of an asset due to usage, passage of time, environmental factors, wear and tear, obsolescence, depletion or inadequacy.

Depreciation Charge - The depreciation charge or depreciation expense is the dollar amount of depreciation charged to an asset over a given period of time.

Depression - In road engineering a depression is a localised area of pavement surface that is slightly lower in elevation than the surrounding pavement.

Deprival Value - The Deprival Value of an asset is the value of the present owner if the owner were deprived of the asset and was required to continue to deliver the same level of service. Assets are valued at an amount that represents the entire loss that might be expected to be incurred if the entity were deprived of the service potential or future economic benefits of particular assets at the reporting date. This is a valuation basis that reflects a non-market concept of the value in use of assets as part of a going concern.

Depth Indicator - A depth indicator is a device used to indicate to drivers the maximum depth of floodwaters across a road. The zero mark on the Depth Indicators is set at the lowest pavement level on the section of road liable to flooding.

Desalination - Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from water.

Desalination Plant - A Desalination Plant is a facility for removing salt and other minerals from sea water to produce fresh water for human consumption or irrigation.

Design Storm - Design Storm is the Average Recurrence Interval, ARI, of a storm for which the stormwater system is designed.

Desktop Revaluation - A desktop revaluation is a revaluation of an asset classes undertaken without physical inspection of the assets, typically done by applying revised unit rates to known quantities of assets.

Detention Basin - A Detention Basin is a large, open, free draining basin that temporarily “detains” collected stormwater runoff. These basins are normally maintained in a dry condition between storm events.

Detention Time - Detention time is the length of time that sewage remains in the gravity or rising mains or in pump station wet wells before it reaches the wastewater treatment plant. The longer it is detained in the system, the greater the likelihood that conditions arise that are conducive to the development of odors due to hydrogen sulfide production. Apart from producing malodorous gasess, the sewage also becomes more difficult to treat once it reaches the sewage treatment plant. Consquently, the goal is to keep the time in which raw sewage remains in the system to a minimum.

Development - A development is any change to the use of land requiring town planning approval and/or oversite.

Development Area - A Development Area is an area identified as having potential for housing following strategic planning and study.

Development Assessment - Development Assessment is a branch of local government responsible for assessing proposed urban or industrial development.

Development Contribution - A development contribution is a fee or contribution charged against a development for the provision of infrastructure.

Development Manual - A Development Manual is a document that explains a Council's policies and specifications for land development, and specifies the standards that developments must adhere to.

Development Plan - A Development Plan is a plan which identifies the precise conditions for housing and other activities in a Development Area.

Digester - A Digester is a vessel that provides for the process of anerobic digestion. It is commonly made of concrete and houses anerobic bacteria. Sewerage sludge is normally pumped in at regular intervals to maintain a food supply for the population of anerobic bacteria. Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is widely used to treat wastewater sludges and organic wastes because it provides volume and mass reduction of the input material. A conical floor can be included in the digester design to facilitate product removal and cleaning. Some form of mixing equipment is also normally used to promote the digestion process.
Digesters are typically found at Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Digital Elevation Model - A Digital Elevation Model, (DEM), is a digital representation of the topography of the Earth's land surface.

Digout - The term digout is used by some Councils to describe the treatment of isolated failed pavement areas by replacement with new material or improvement of existing material, including reinstatement of road surface.

Directive - A directive is a generic term for all formal guidance, instructions, or orders issued by an organization.

Discharge - Discharge, Q, is a measure of the volume rate of flow (m3/s) through a stream cross-section. Discharge is the rate of flow in a particular channel reach, which in turn is affected by precipitation events occuring in the watershed of the channel reach, as well as topography, vegetation and soil type.

Disposal Plan - A Disposal Plan is a document that defines how an organisation decides when an asset should be retired or disposed of, and the activities associated with the process, including sale, demolition or relocation. Disposal Plans are often a section within an Asset Management Plan.

Distributor Road - A distributor road is a road that dispersed traffic into or within a local area.

District Park - A District Park is a mid-sized park providing a range of facilities and activity space for recreation or sport. These parks cater for large groups and are appealing to a range of users or groups. They service several communities or suburbs and are a fairly well known destination for those people living within their catchment.

Divided Road - A Divided Road is a road in which the two directions of traffic are separated by a central barrier or a median.

Documentation Site - A Documentation Site is a web site used to document a software product. Documentation sites are typically searchable, and easier to use than an old fashioned hard copy or PDF User Manual.

Document/Records Management System - A Document/Records Management System is a software system designed to manage documents & records.

Donated Asset - [[include i:donated-asset]]

Drainage Catchment - A drainage catchment is the area of land contributing stormwater runoff to a given point.

Drainage Channel - A Drainage Channel (also Open Drain) is an unenclosed earthen, grass, concrete, stone or gabion lined structure for transporting stormwater.

Drainage Easement - A Drainage Easement is an easement created for drainage purposes. It would typically be created in the situation where a Council stormwater pipe or open drain passes through private property. In some jurisdictions, an easement may also be required to be created where landscaping or drainage works on private property has the effect of diverting water to flow across neighbouring properties.

Drainage Reserve - A Drainage Reserve is a parcel of land set aside for drainage purposes. Drainage Reserves usually contain either a drainage basin or an open drain.

Drainage System - A drainage system is a system of gully inlets, pipes, overland flow paths, open channels, culverts and detention basins used to convey stormwater runoff to its receiving waters. In urban areas stormwater runoff volumes are typically greater than they were prior to urbanisation because of increased impervious areas within catchments. Drainage systems are designed to reduce the risk of council, community and private assets being damaged by localised flooding as a result of these increased runoff volumes.

Drinking Water - Drinking Water (also Potable Water) is water that is suitable for human consumption.

Drinking Water Scheme - A Drinking Water Scheme is the infrastructure owned by a drinking water service provider for single or multiple combinations of the individual components of treatment, transmission, reticulation, or the storage of recycled water to augment a drinking water supply.

Driverless Car - [[include driverless-vehicle]]

Driveway - A driveway (also vehicular access) is a (typically) short section of private road connecting a residence or similar structure to the public road network.

Driveway Works - The Victorian Road Management Act (Works & Infrastructure) Regulations 2005 define driveway works as the installation, maintenance or repair of a physical means of entry or exit for vehicles from adjoining land to a roadway.

Drop Structure - A Drop Structure is an artificially constructed structure used in creeks or dam spillway to control the velocity and energy of water as it flows from high to lower elevation. These structures are also used to control erosion in streams or creeks.

Dwelling - A dwelling is a building or a part of a building intended for use as a residence by a single household.

Earthworks - Earthworks are engineering works involving the moving or removal of soil, for example in the construction of channels, tunnels, roads, dams, airports etc. Earthworks often require earth moving and hauling vehicles such as bull dozers, scrapers, bucket loaders and dump trucks.

Easement - An easement is the right to use the real property of another without possessing it. Easements are often held by Councils where stormwater pipes or sewers are located within a private property. It is typically not permissible to build over an easement.

Economic Development - Economic Development is the increase in the standard of living of a nation's population with sustained growth from a simple, low-income economy to a modern, high-income economy. Its scope includes the process and policies by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

Economic Life - The Economic Life of an asset is the length of time for which maintaining and operating the asset remains the lowest cost alternative for providing a nominated level of service. "

Economic Value - The economic value of an asset is the discounted cashflow value derived by discounting the free cashflow of the asset by an appropriate risk adjusted rate.

Edge Break - An Edge Break is a broken or irregular edge of a road wearing surface.

Edge Drop-off - An edge drop-off is road geometry defect where the vertical distance from the edge of seal to the adjacent shoulder exceeds acceptable limits.

Educational Video Library - An Educational Video Library is a collection of videos used for education purposes.

Effluent - Effluent is residual or waste water, including sewage, which is flushed through sewerage pipes and treated before re-use or discharge to the environment.

Embankment - An embankment is an earthen structure that has been constructed to raise a road, railway, bridge or other structure above the elevation of the area surrounding the structure.

Embellishment - The common definition of an embellishment is an unnecessarily added touch, an ornamental addition or a flourish, but in Australian local government the term is also sometimes used to describe an asset or improvement, especially within a park.

Emergency Management - Emergency Management is a range of measures to manage risks to communities and the environment and the organisation and management of resources for dealing with all aspects of emergencies.

Emergency Plan - An Emergency Plan is a documented scheme of assigned responsibilities, actions and procedures, required in
the event of an emergency.

Emergency Relief Structure - An Emergency Relief Structure (ERS) is used to prevent sewer overflows through maintenance holes or customer connections, for example through an ORG, and to protect the sewer system from damage particularly during extreme rain events.

Emergency Response Plan - An Emergency Response Plan is a plan that documents an organisation's service delivery involvement involving action plans and contingencies to respond to community risk scenarios from an emergency through to an emergency to a declared disaster.

Emergency Works - Emergency Works are works required urgently to protect –

Emulsion Seal - An Emulsion Seal is a type of surface treatment. An emulsion seal is very similar to a standard sprayed seal but the bitumen-water emulsion can be successfully used at lower temperatures.

Enclosed GPT - An Enclosed GPT is a type of Gross Pollutant Trap consisting of a fully enclosed trash rack and/or sediment collection sump usually located at or near the end of a stormwater pipe

Entrance Statement Structure - An Entrance Statement Structure is a fence or a wall (usually constructed of brick or other masonry materials, sometimes faced with a plastered render which can also be painted) located at the entrance to a street, road or subdivision that identifies the name of the street, road or subdivision.

Environmental Hazard - Environmental hazard is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health.

Environmental Health Officer - An Environmental Health Officer (EHO) is a Council employee appointed in accordance with state legislation to carry out a mandated environmental health related functions.

Environmental Management - Environmental Management is the management of interaction by the modern human societies with, and impact upon the natural and built environment.

Environmental Management Plan - An Environmental Management Plan is a plan dedicated to the protection and enhancement of the environment.

Environmental Park - An Environmental Park is a park with a primarily ecological purpose, being the protection of an area of significant environmental value. These parks protect and enhance biodiversity by providing habitat for flora and fauna and may include movement corridors. These parks are planned and managed to protect environmental values, but are often also embellished to enable recreational use, such as a pathway or a cycleway.

Erosion and Sediment Control - Erosion and Sediment Control is the practice of controlling erosion of soil and thereby reduce the creation of sediments on a construction site, and to prevent sediment from entering waterways.

ESRI - ESRI is a software provider best known for its geographic information system (GIS) ArcGIS software.

Established Area - The term Established Area is a label given by by some muncipalities on the urban fringe to those parts of the municipality that have been urbanised for some time.

Estimate Sheet - An estimate sheet is a document used to estimate the cost of a project. It typically consists of a list of items and quantities and unit rates associated with those items.

Expenditure - Expenditure is the spending of money on goods and services.

Expenditure Forecast - An Expenditure Forecast is an estimate of future expenditure over a period of time.

Expense - An expense is a cost that is non-capital in nature and therefore recorded in the expenses section of an income statement.

Expression of Interest - An Expression of Interest (EOI) is a process used to identify potential suppliers interested in, and capable of, delivering a particular product or service. Potential suppliers are asked to provide information on their capability to do the work.

Extranet - An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses.

Facility - A facility is a defined area containing a number of assets that are associated in some way. A simple facility could consist of a single main building and the grounds and infrastructure (e.g. car parks and fencing) surrounding it. A more complex facility, (e.g. a depot or a water treatment plant) could contain many buildings and/or other types of assets.

Failure Mode - An asset's failure mode describes the way in which a failure occurs.

Failure of an Asset - An asset may be considered to have failed if its function is no longer in accordance with the asset's performance requirements.

Fair Value - Fair Value is "the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties, in an arms length transaction." This is equivalent to the market value of the asset where one exists. If there is no market the fair value can be determined on a (depreciated) cost of acquisition basis.

Falling Weight Deflectometer - A falling weight deflectometer is a device used to evaluate the physical properties of road pavement.

Family Day Care - Family Day Care is full or part time, before and after school and respite care undertaken in the homes of registered careproviders.

Feed Hydrant - A feed hydrant is a term used to describe a fire hydrant suitable for supplying water to the suction of a fire fighting appliance.

Fence - A fence (also fencing) is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary.

Field Inlet Pit - A field inlet pit is a grated stormwater pit designed to drain a low point. Field inlet pits are typically located in parks, footpaths, medians and similar locations.

Final Seal - A Final Seal is a sprayed seal applied over the top of a primerseal about a year after the initial construction of a road pavement.

Financial Asset Register - A financial asset register appears to be the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines term for a fixed asset register, i.e. a register of all assets and groups of assets with value greater than an entitity's capitalisation policy theshold. (The term is mentioned in Section 12.5, but not defined in the Glossary)

Financial Capitalisation Threshold - A financial capitalisation threshold or asset recognition threshold is a dollar amount below which expenditure is treated as recurrent expenditure, even if it associated with an activity that is typically capital in nature.

Financial Management - Financial Management is the management of the finances of an organisation in order to achieve financial objectives.

Financial Plan - A Financial Plan is a document that outlines an organisation's investment, debt & revenue policies.

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