LGAM Glossary

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Acronyms . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H . I . J . K . L . M . N . O . P . Q . R . S . T . U . V . W . X . Y . Z . All

Financial Statement - A financial statement is a document prepared annually by Councils and other organisations that provides information about the
organisation's financial position, financial performance and cash flows.

Fire Access Track - A fire access track is a track that is designed, constructed and maintained for the safe passage of fire fighting vehicles undertaking fire suppression activities.

Fire Fighting Appliance - Fire Fighting Appliance is a term used to describe a fire truck with a booster pump used to boost water pressure for fire fighting.

Fire Fighting Flow - The fire fighting flow is the flow rate required for fire fighting purposes established by assessing the building material type, building design and size and referring to the Fire Fighting Regulations.

Fire Hydrant - A fire hydrant is a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in extinguishing a fire.

Fitout - The term fitout (from a building valuation perspective) means the internal fittings and fixtures that are permanently attached to a building, e.g.

  • Benches
  • Ceilings
  • Internal walls & screens (excluding load bearing walls)
  • Floor Coverings (carpet, vinyl, tiles, timber parquetry)
  • Light fittings
  • Electrical Cabling & Fittings
  • Toilets
  • Kitchens

Fixed Asset Register - A fixed asset register is a high-level, asset register designed primarily to cater for the financial aspects of asset management rather than the engineering & operational aspects of asset management.

Flame Arrester - A flame arrester is a device that stops fuel from combusting by extinguishing the flame. It is commonly used in vents on fuel storage tanks and in fuel or flammable liquid storage cabinets.

Flexible Pavement - A flexible pavement is a road pavement with a structure that deflects, or flexes, under loading. A flexible pavement structure is typically composed of several layers of material. Each layer receives the loads from the above layer, spreads them out, then passes on these loads to the next layer below.

Floating Digester Lid - A floating digester lid or cover is used in wastewater treatment plants. It is a cover that floats on top of the sludge in the digester tank.

Floating GPT - A Floating GPT is a type of Gross Pollutant Trap consisting of a partial channel-width floating boom directing floating litter and debris into a floating pollutant retention cage.

Floating Litter Trap - Floating Litter Trap -> Floating GPT

Flood Level Marker - A flood level marker is a graduated post or pole placed adjacent to a flood prone area to indicate the depth of water during a flood event.

Flood Management Plan - A Flood Management Plan is a plan that aims to assist an organisation to undertake their flood management responsibilities and to ensure that suitable measures have been (or are being) implemented where possible to manage the existing risks associated with flooding.

Flood Mitigation Network - A flood mitigation network is a network of assets designed to mitigate the effect of flooding.

Flood Protection Barrier - A Flood Protection Barrier is a structure specially designed to temporarily protect properties during a flood event. Various proprietary, rapid deployment systems have been engineered, ranging from water or air inflatable tubes to self filling water barriers and fold-up steel wall systems.

Flooding - Flooding is the inundation of land with water. It is occurs when a water course overflows its banks, or where rainfall intensity over a period of time is so great that the drainage infrastructure within an area is unable to cope with the resulting runoff.

Floodplain - A floodplain is the area of flat land adjacent to a river, creek, lake, estuary, dam or artificial channel which is subject to flooding during high rainfall periods. It is considered that such land is not financially feasible to be protected against flooding.

Floodway - A floodway is either:
a) that part of the floodplain specifically designed to carry flood flows and ideally capable of containing the Defined Flood Event.
b) a section of road designed to be overtopped by floodwater during relatively low average recurrence interval (ARI) floods.

Floor - A floor is the walking surface inside a building.

Flowmeter - A Flowmeter is a device used to measure and display flow of a liquid or gas through a pipe.

Flushing - Flushing (also Bleeding) is the partial or complete immersion of aggregate into the bituminous binder causing low texture depth and inadequate skid resistance.

Footbridge - A footbridge (also pedestrian bridge) is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists and horse riders, rather than vehicular traffic. Most local councils will be responsible for a number of pedestrian bridges.

Footpath - A footpath is a strip of concrete, asphalt, pavers, bitumen seal or crushed rock laid between the back of kerb and the property boundary (or elsewhere) for use as a path by pedestrians.

Footpath Grinding - Footpath Grinding is a maintenance activity involving grinding down of exposed footpath lips with a mechanical grinder.

Footpath Hierarchy - A footpath hierarchy (also pathway hierarchy) is a scheme for categorising footpaths into groups based on a number of factors including; usage, location and the demographics of the people likely to be using the footpath.

Footpath Sweeping - Footpath Sweeping is an activity undertaken to remove unwanted material such as litter from the footpath surface. It is generally undertaken for aesthetic reasons, but may also contribute to improved pedestrian safety and stormwater quality.

Footway - A footway is a footpath or similar structure designed for pedestrian use - a path for pedestrians across a road bridge or between buildings for example.

Formation - In civil engineering formation means "the surface of finished earthworks, excluding cut or fill batters."

Formation Width - The formation width of a road is the sum of the widths of medians + lanes + verges + shoulders.

Formed Road - A formed road is an unsealed road that has been shaped by a grader but has not been constructed with imported rock.

Found Asset - A found asset is an asset not included in an organisation's asset register at the time of its construction, that is subsequently identified as a being owned by the organisation, and belatedly recognised.

Fountain - A fountain is a decorative water feature that features a stream or streams of water discharging into a basin or jetting into the air.

Framework - A Framework is a broad overview, outline, or skeleton of interlinked items which supports a particular approach to a specific objective, and serves as a guide that can be modified as required by adding or deleting items.

Free & Open Source Software - Free & Open Source Software is software that is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code.

Freeway - A freeway is a type of divided road with no access for traffic between interchanges and with grade separation at all intersections.

Front End Loader - A front end loader is type of heavy plant used in construction applications such as material handling, digging, load-and-carry, road building, and site preparation.

Fully Funded Depreciation - Fully Funded Depreciation is the amount saved to replace assets at the end of their useful life.

Functional Specification - A functional specification is documentation that describes the requested behavior of an engineering or software system. The documentation typically describes what is needed by the system user as well as requested properties of inputs and outputs.

Funded Depreciation - Funded Depreciation is the amount of revenue raised to fully cover the calculated cost of depreciation in any given year.

Funding Gap - A funding gap is the difference between;
a) the amount of funds required annually for satisfactory operation, maintenance & renewal of an asset class over the useful life of that asset class, and;
b) the amount of funds currently being spent on the asset annually.

Future Economic Benefit - The future economic benefit embodied in an asset is the potential to contribute, directly or indirectly, to the flow of cash and cash equivalents to the entity or with respect of not-for-profit entities, whether in the public or private sector, the future economic benefits are also used to provide goods and services in accordance with the entities' objectives.

Gabion - A gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with soil, sand or rocks that can be used in drainage channel construction, road building, shore protection works or other civil engineering works, undertaken by councils.

Garbage Collection - Garbage Collection is the collection rubbish from residences and other properties.

Garden - A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. Most Councils maintain gardens in parks and around other Council facilities.

Gate Valve - A Gate valve is a type of valve designed to stop or start flow. They are either set to be fully open or fully closed and are the most commonly used type of valve alongside ball valves.

Gazebo - A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal, in parks, gardens, and spacious public areas.

Geocentric Datum of Australia - The Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) is the current Australian coordinate system. It replaced the Australian Geodetic Datum (AGD).

Geographical Information System - A Geographical Information System (GIS) is an information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyses, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyse spatial information, edit data, maps, and present the results of all these operations.

Geotextiles - Geotextiles are permeable fabrics used in drainage, paving, soil stabilisation, sedimentation and erosion control.

Glassphalt - Glassphalt is a type of asphalt in which recycled crushed glass is incorporated into the mix.

Global Positioning System - The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth which has an unobstructed view of four or more GPS satellites.

Government 2.0 - Government 2.0 is a term describing the policies and procedures required to make Government more "open". Government 2.0 (Gov 2.0) will require tools to assist in its application and currently there is a move afoot to apply the social networking and integration advantages of Web 2.0 tools (wikis, blogs, twitter, rss feeds, etc.) to the practice of government. The term (Gov 2.0) describes the efforts to make government more open, collaborative and cooperative and more supportive of open consultation, open data and knowledge sharing.

GPS Camera - A GPS Camera is a camera with a built in GPS receiver that automatically embeds GPS coordinates within captured images. This process is known as Geotagging.

Grandstand - A grandstand is a large structure designed for seating spectators.

Grated Field Inlet Pit - A Grated Field Inlet Pit is a type of Stormwater Pit designed to receive stormwater through a grate in the top of the pit.

Grated Kerb Inlet Pit - A Grated Kerb Inlet Pit is a stormwater pit with a grated inlet located within the tray of the kerb & channel.

Grated Pit - A Grated Pit is a type of Stormwater Pit incorporating a metal grate to stop the ingress of rubbish into the pit.

Gravel Resheeting - Gravel Resheeting is the process of applying a layer of gravel (usually about 150mm) to a section of unsealed road.

Gravel Road - A gravel road is an unsealed road constructed with imported rock.

Green Asset - A Green Asset is an asset that has a positive environmental impact. Examples of green assets include; waterways, trees, waterbodies and stormwater treatment systems.

Greenfields Valuation - A Greenfields Valuation is a valuation that estimates the cost to replace an asset, assuming there are no existing underground services or adjacent buildings or other similar constraints that will adversely effect the cost of reconstructing or replacing the asset.

Grey Water - Grey water (greywater) is household wastewater which has not been contaminated by toilet discharge. Grey water includes wastewater from baths, showers, bathroom wash basins, clothes washing machines, sinks and laundry tubs.

Grit Chamber - A Grit Chamber is typically a long narrow tank designed to settle out solids such as sand, coffee grounds, and eggshells from wastewater passing through it.

Gross Pollutant - Gross Pollutant describes the garbage that is collected in stormwater or drainage systems. It can consist of

  • cans
  • cigarette butts
  • bottles ( glass and plastic)
  • plastic bags
  • paper
  • vegetation fragments ( branches, twigs, grass)
  • sediment ( sand, pebbles, rocks)

Gross Pollutant Trap - A Gross Pollutant Trap (GPT) is a device designed to trap coarse pollutants in stormwater. A GPT can be installed on drain entrances, outfalls, open channels or underground pipe systems.

Ground Lease - A Ground Lease is a long-term lease of land in which the tenant is allowed to occupy and develop the land during the lease period. After the lease expires, the land with all improvements, buildings and other structures will be restored to the owner. Ground leases are typically for ten years or more.

Groundwater - Groundwater is the water located beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water.

Growth Area - A growth area is a region which is experiencing rapid population growth, subdivisional activity and urbanisation.

Growths areas are typically located on the urban fringe.

Guardrail - A Guardrail is a fence or similar structure designed to prevent vehicles from veering off the roadway into oncoming traffic, crashing against solid objects or falling over an embankment. A secondary objective is keeping the vehicle upright while deflected along the guardrail.

Guide Sign - A guide sign is a traffic sign that tells drivers about where to go and what they will find there.

Guidepost - A guidepost is a white timber or plastic post fitted with delineators that is used to mark and delineate roadside hazards, road widths, alignments and structures. They should be installed at a uniform distance from the edge of the road.

Gully Inlet - The Queensland Urban Drainage Manual uses the term "gulley inlet" in defining the term "Drainage System, but does not explicitly define it. It is presumably a type of kerb inlet.

Gully Pit - A gully pit is a type of grated stormwater pit.

Hall - A hall is a building consisting largely of a principal room, that is used for meetings and social affairs.

Hangar - A hangar is a closed structure designed to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage.

Hardstand - A hardstand (hardstand area) is a paved or stabilized area where aircraft, ground vehicles or materials are parked or stored.

Hatchet Lot - A Hatchet Lot, also called a battle axe lot , is a lot that has been created behind a full-frontage lot and is accessable via an access easement or access strip. If there are multiple properties accessed via the easement then this access easement usually registered under the community title scheme.

Hazard - A hazard is an event, condition, substance, process or practice which has the potential to cause harm to the health and safety of any person.

Hazard Inspection - A hazard inspection is an inspection carried out in response to the notification of a hazard.

Headwall - A Headwall (also Endwall) is a small retaining wall placed at the inlet or outlet of a stormwater pipe or culvert. It serves to minimise vegetation growth and reduce erosion around the culvert inlet and outlet. Although the terms headwall and endwall tend to get used interchangeably it may be more correct to call a retaining wall at a pipe inlet a headwall and a retaining wall at a pipe outlet an endwall.7

Headworks - The term headworks can mean either:
a) a structure at the head of a waterway diversion.
b) upgrade works that have to be carried out to cater for the additional demands placed on existing or proposed infrastructure as a result of new developments within an area or catchment.

Herbicide Spraying - Herbicide Spraying is a maintenance activity carried out by many Councils to remove grass and weeds from around obstacles, such as guide posts, road signs & guard rail that make roadside slashing impractical.

Heritage Asset - A Heritage Asset is an asset with historic, artistic, scientific, technological, geographical or environmental qualities that is held and maintained principally for its contribution to knowledge and culture and this purpose is central to the objectives of the entity holding it.

Highlift Pump Station - A Highlift Pump Station is a pump station designed to pump treated water into the water reticulation system at pressure either directly or via a Water Tower.

Highway - A highway is a main road declared a highway by the State or Federal Government and typically used for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities, large towns, and states.

Home Care - Home Care is the provision of assistance to people with domestic tasks such as cleaning, washing and ironing.

Hotmix - Hotmix is a particular type of asphalt produced by heating the asphalt binder to decrease its viscosity, and drying the aggregate to remove moisture from it prior to mixing. Mixing is generally performed with the aggregate at about 150 °C. Paving and compaction must be performed while the asphalt is sufficiently hot.

House - A house is a building or structure that is a dwelling or place for habitation by human beings.

Human Resources - Human Resources (HR) is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization. In local government the term is more commonly used to the section within a Council charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals.

Hydraulic Grade Line - A hydraulic grade line (HGL) is a plot of the pressure along a fluid path. The pressure is the sum of pressure head and elevation head at any point along a fluid path.

Hydraulic Modelling - Hydraulic Modelling is the study of free surface flow such as in creeks, rivers, estuaries and overland. It is conducted using either numerical or physical modelling techniques.

Hydrogen Sulfide - Hydrogen sulfide gas, (H2S), is a major source of odour in wastewater systems. H2S gas has a characteristic 'rotten egg' smell. This gas results from the reduction of sulfate (SO4-2) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S), by anaerobic bacteria:
SO4-2 + 2C + 2H2O → 2HCO3- H2S

Hydrograph - A hydrograph is a graph that shows the flow of a stream over time. The stream can be creek or river flows, as well as sewage flow.

Icon - An icon is a small pictogram used in graphical user interfaces to supplement the presentation of textual information to the user.

Immunisation Clinic - An Immunisation Clinic is place where people can attend to receive an immunisation. Many Councils run regular immunisation clinics.

Impact On Environment - "Impact on environment" refers to the potential effects on the environment of any defective infrastructure e.g. sewer main or pump station overflow, as well as the effect of machinery necessary to rectify the defect, on the nearby surroundings. The environment can refer to parks, gardens, forests, fields or heritage listed infrastructure.

Impairment - Impairment is an accounting term used to describe the situation where an fixed asset's carrying amount is greater than its recoverable amount.

Impairment Loss - Impairment Loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

Improvement Opportunity - An improvement opportunity is anything that could be done better.

Income Statement - An income statement is a financial statement prepared by a Council (or other organisation) that shows its revenue and expenses over a period of time, typically a financial year.

Indented Parking Bay - An indented parking bay is a parking bay located immediately adjacent to a through traffic lane, but protected from through traffic by virtue of the kerb & channel alignment adjacent to the parking bay(s) being offset in the direction of the property boundary.

Industrial Collector Road - An industrial collector road is a road that acts as a feeder or connecting road, linking industrial areas within the arterial or distributor road system. Industrial collectors will provide direct frontage to industrial lots and access to industrial access roads.

Infill Housing - Infill housing is a general term used for new housing in existing residential areas and usually involving the use of a vacant site or the removal of an existing dwelling to enable construction of a larger number of dwellings.

Inflow and Infiltration - Inflow and Infiltration is water entering the sewer system through cracked pipes or leaky manholes.

Information System - An information system is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. An information system encompasses the interaction between people and information technology.

Information Systems - Information systems is an academic field of study bridging the gap between computer science and the needs of business. See also information system

Information Technology - Information technology (IT), is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware."

Infrastructure - Infrastructure is any long-life physical asset that consists of an entire system or network (including components), not otherwise defined, which provides the foundation to support public services and enhance the capacity of the economy.

Infrastructure Backlog - The term Infrastructure Backlog refers to the total amount or value of renewal works that need to be undertaken to bring a Council's (or other entity's) asset stock up to an acceptable standard.

Infrastructure Funding Gap - Infrastructure Funding Gap -> Infrastructure Gap

Infrastructure Gap - The term Infrastructure Gap (also Infrastructure Funding Gap) describes the difference between the cost of renewing existing infrastructure assets and the current expenditure on those assets.

Inlet Chamber - An Inlet Chamber is a chamber designed to receive a water from a reservoir.

Inlet Pit - An inlet pit is a stormwater pit with an opening or grate designed to allow stormwater to enter.

Innovation - Innovation is the introduction of a new way of doing or creating something.

Inspection Sheet - An inspection sheet is a hard copy document printed out to facilitate that collection of data in the field.

Intangible Asset - An intangible asset is as an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. Intangible assets are sometimes referred to as simple intangibles.

Integrated Asset Management System - An Integrated Asset Management System is an asset management system that is embedded in a larger software suite. In a local government context that larger software suite would probably include a finance system and a customer request management system.

Intelligent Numbering System - An intelligent numbering system is a system for assigning ID numbers to assets (or anything else for that matter), that describes the asset in some way.

Internal Audit - An Internal Audit is an independent, objective assurance activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.

International Roughness Index - The International Roughness Index (IRI) is a worldwide standard for measuring road smoothness longitudinally (i.e. in direction of driving). The index measures pavement roughness in wheel path in terms of the number of metres per kilometre that a laser, mounted in a specialised van, jumps as it is driven along a road. The lower the IRI number at given speed, the smoother the ride felt by road user.

Interpretive Sign - An Interpretive Sign (also Interpretative Sign) is a sign that provides information about a site to visitors to the site.

Intervention Level - In asset management the term intervention level refers to the condition score below which the owner or operator of an asset has decided it should not be allowed to deteriorate, i.e. the point in an asset's life at which it should be programmed for renewal.

Intranet - An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational systems with its employees.

Invert Crossing - An invert crossing is a section of kerb & channel adjacent to a driveway or pathway, with a flatter than normal profile to allow vehicles or pedestrians to easily cross the kerb.

Irrigation Channel - An irrigation channel is an open channel that transports water in order to irrigate agricultural land.

Irrigation System - An irrigation system is typically a system for delivering water to plants. An irrigation system should be designed to replace water used by the plants during periods of NO or low rainfall to aid plant growth.

Isolating Valve - [[include stop-valve]]

Jetty - A jetty is a structure extending into a body of water, which protects a harbor or coastline from the effects of currents and tides.

Job Card - A job card or work ticket is a hard copy document given to a person responsible for carrying out maintenance or other works on an asset or asset component that details the work that needs to be undertaken. The extent of work carried out is typically recorded on the card, and returned to the point of issue, so that the information can be recorded against the asset.

Job Safety Analysis - A Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a safety management tool in which the risks or hazards of a specific job in the workplace are identified, and then measures to eliminate or control those hazards are determined and implemented.

Jump Up - The term jump up, which is also known as vertical riser, is often used to describe a sewerage house connection branch.

Junction Pit - A junction pit is a stormwater pit lacking an surface inlet of any type.

Junction Structure - A junction structure is a manhole, pit or chamber constructed at the junction of two or more pipes, or at a change of grade.

Kerb & Channel Machine - A Kerb & Channel Machine is a mechanical device used to lay kerb & channel.

Kerb Crossing - A kerb crossing is a modified section of kerb & channel or a structure adjacent to a driveway designed to allow vehicles to cross from the road to the the driveway.

Kerb Inlet - A kerb inlet is an inlet to a stormwater pit located behind or adjacent to a section of kerb & channel.

Kerb Inlet Pit - A kerb inlet pit is a stormwater pit located under or behind a section of kerb & channel with an opening and/or grate designed to allow stormwater to enter.

Kerb Marker - A kerb marker is a plate or marker affixed to or embedded into a kerb or symbol painted on it, indicating the presence of an underground service crossing or in the road adjacent to that point.

Kerbside Collection - Kerbside Collection is the collection garbage, recyclables, green waste or any other category of unwanted household items from the nature strip or the side of the road.

Key Performance Indicator - A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance. Such measures are commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term organizational goals.

Key Result Area - A Key Result Area (KRA) is a general output or outcome for which a department, section or individual is responsible. KRAs are similar to Key Performance Indicators, but are more qualitative in nature.

Key Strategic Activity - A Key Strategic Activity (KSA) is an important activity which has performance targets and measures associated with it.

Kindergarten - A Kindergarten is a facility used for preparing pre-school children for school.

Kiosk - A kiosk is a building or part of a building from which goods are sold to customers through a window or an opening in the side of the building. Kiosks are common in swimming pool complexes.

Knowledge Base - A knowledge base is a kind of database for knowledge management, providing the means for the computerized collection, organization, and retrieval of knowledge.

Knowledge Exchange Network - A Knowledge Exchange Network is a mechanism that allows users to locate, exchange and acquire knowledge in a systematic way. They may be virtual/electronic or actual/physical communities of interest.

Knowledge Management - Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences.

Land - Land is the part of the surface of the Earth not covered by water.

Landfill - A landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

Landfill Environment Management Plan - A Landfill Environment Management Plan (LEMP) is a technical reference document, design record, and general management and monitoring plan for the development and ongoing operation of a landfill site.

Landscaping - Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:

  • living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.
  • natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water;
  • human elements such as structures, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans; and
  • abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions.

Lane - A lane is a portion of a road designed and marked out for use by a single line of vehicles in such a way as to control and guide drivers for the purpose of reducing traffic conflicts.

Lane Closure - A lane closure us the temporary closure of one or more traffic lanes. Traffic control devices are in place to enable traffic to use unaffected lanes.

Laneway - A laneway is a narrow street or alley located at the rear of urban buildings, especially houses or commercial premises.

Lease - A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to the lessee in return for a payment or series of payments the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time.

Levee - A levee is an artificial embankment or wall to used to protect low lying areas from flooding.

Level Crossing - A level crossing is an area where a road and a railway meet at substantially the same level, whether or not there is a level crossing sign on the road at all or any of the entrances to the area; or an area where a road and tram tracks meet at substantially the same level and that has a level crossing sign on the road at each entrance to the area.

Level of Service - Level of Service (also Service Level) can be defined as the service quality for a given activity. Levels of Service are often documented as a commitment to carry out a given action or actions within a specified time frame in response to an event or asset condition data.

Library - A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. It can mean the collection, the building or room that houses such a collection, or both.

Library Management System - A library management system a resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed.

Lifecycle Cost - The term Lifecycle Cost (also Whole of Life Cost) refers to the total cost of ownership over the life of an asset including; planning, design, construction/acquisition, operation, maintenance, renewal, finance and disposal costs.

Lifecycle Cost Analysis - Lifecycle Cost Analysis is a method of assessing which asset option, will be the most economical over an extended period of time.

Light Tower - A Light Tower is a tower (usually of steel construction) on which lights are mounted. Light towers are typically used to illuminate outdoor sports facilities such as ovals.

Linear Park - A Linear Park or Corridor Park is a park that provides recreation and commuter connections and include parks along waterways. These parks provide links between residential areas and community destinations such as schools, shopping centres, sport parks and recreation parks. Linear parks with a bushland setting, such as along waterways, provide opportunities for environmental protection and enhancement.

Link Road - A Link Road is a road that supplements the main arterial road network. A link road provides through traffic movement between urban areas, and other places, such as shopping precincts, major sporting venues, industrial areas, agricultural areas and major tourist attractions.

Liquid Asset - A liquid asset is an asset which can be turned into cash easily or swiftly with minimum capital loss.

Litter Basket - A Litter Basket is an in-pipe litter and debris collection basket installed within a junction pit of a piped stormwater drainage system.

Litter Bin - Litter Bin is an alternate name for a Rubbish Bin located in a public place.

Litter Sock - A litter sock is a cylindrical "sock" made of netting that is secured over the outlet of a drainage pipe and captures all material larger than the pore size of the net.

Loading Zone - A loading zone is a clearly signed area set aside for short-term use by certain vehicles when loading or unloading goods in the course of business or when dropping off or picking up passengers. Extended parking while loading zones are in operation is not permitted.

Local Area Traffic Management - Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) is the use of physical devices, streetscaping treatments and other measures (including regulations and other non-physical measures) to influence vehicle operation, in order to create safer and more liveable local street.

Local Law - A local law is a law adopted by a Council that reflects community needs and ensures the good rule and government of the area.

Local Park - A local park is a park that services the social and informal recreational needs of nearby residents.

Local Road - A local road is a road or street primarily used for access to abutting properties.

Local Road Network - The Local Road Network is that portion of the Road Network for which a Local Government is responsible, and is eligible for funding from the State Government to operate and maintain.

Local Street - A local street is a street whose main function is to provide access to and from adjacent land uses.

Local Traffic Area Management - Local area traffic management is the process of planning and controlling the usage of streets within a local residential area to achieve goals, determined by affected parties, for the improvement of the residential environment.

Locality - A locality is a type of official place name registered with a State Government. Most rural municipalities are split into a number of localities, in much the same way urban municipalities are split into suburbs.

Long Term Council Community Plan - A Long Term Council Community Plan (LTCCP) is a comprehensive community based long term plan mandated by the New Zealand Local Government Act 2002.

Longitudinal Cracking - Longitudinal cracking is cracking that runs along the length of a pipe or road.

Long-Term Asset Management Plan - A Long-Term Asset Management Plan is a document that -

  • outlines the local government's goals, strategies and polices for managing the local government's assets and infrastructure, during the period covered by the plan; and
  • covers a period of at least 10 years after the commencement of the plan.

Long-Term Community Plan - A Long-Term Community Plan is a document that outlines a local government’s goals, strategies and policies for implementing the local government’s vision for the future of the local government area, during the period covered by the plan; and covers a period of at least 10 years after the commencement of the plan.

Long-term Financial Forecast - A Long-term financial forecast is a document that forecasts an organisation's financial position over an extended period of time.

Long-Term Financial Plan - A long-term financial plan is a financial plan that forecasts expected revenue & expenditure over a period of ten or more years.

Low Energy Nuclear Reaction - A Low Energy Nuclear Reaction is a nuclear reaction that takes place at low temperatures.

Main Road - A Main Road is a road, declared as a main road under an act of parliament, and controlled by the State Government Department responsible for roads.

Maintenance - Maintenance is any activity performed on an asset with a view to ensuring that it is able to deliver an expected level of service until it is scheduled to be renewed, replaced or disposed of.

Maintenance Activity - A maintenance activity is any action undertaken in an attempt to ensure that an asset reaches its design useful life.

Maintenance Grading - The term Maintenance Grading is used to describe the grading of unsealed roads. It is very similar to, and is sometimes used interchangeably with the term Patrol Grading. If there is a difference between the two terms it is probably that maintenance grading is a more scheduled activity where the whole of the road is graded irrespective of condition, and that patrol grading is seen as more of a go out and look for problems and fix them when you find them activity.

Maintenance Management - Maintenance Management is the management and organisation of maintenance activities

Maintenance Planning - Maintenance Planning is the process of deciding in advance the jobs, methods, tools, machines, labour time required, and timing of maintenance actions.

Maintenance Program - A maintenance program is a time-based plan allocating specific maintenance tasks to specific periods

Maintenance Zone - A maintenance zone is a defined geographical area, in which maintenance is carried out in a particular way.

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